Surf Scoter literature cited

surf scoter

Literature Cited

Accurso, L. M. 1992. Distribution and abundance of wintering waterfowl on san francisco bay 1988-1990. M.S. Thesis, Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA.

Anderson, E.M., JLB o w e r , DR Nyeswander, JR.Evenson and J.R. Lovvorn. 2009. Changes in avifaunal abundance in a heavily used wintering and migration site in Puget Sound, Washington, during 1966 - 2007. Marine Ornithology 37: 19-27

Bédard, J. H., A. Nadeua, and J.-P. L. Savard. 1997. Repartition et abondance de la Macreuse a front blanc dans le moyen estuaire du Saint-Laurent a l' automne. Can. Wildl. Serv., QC, Tech. Rep. Series no. 281.

Borgmann, K. L. 2012. A Review of Human Disturbance Impacts on Waterbirds.  Audubon CA report for San Francisco Bay Joint Venture. 

Campbell, R.W., Dawe, N.K., McTaggart-Cowan, I., Cooper, J.M., Kaiser, G.W. & McNall, M.C.E. 1990. The birds of British Columbia. Vol 1: Nonpasserines, introduction and loons through waterfowl. Victoria, BC: Royal British Columbia Museum.

Chapin, F. S., III, J. Yarie, K. Van Cleve, and L. A. Viereck. 2006. The conceptual basis of LTER studies in the Alaskan  boreal forest. Pp. 311 in F. S. Chapin III, M. W. Oswood, K. Van Cleve, L. A. Viereck, andD. L. Verbyla (editors), Alaska’s changing boreal forest. Oxford University Press, New York, NY.

Cosco Busan Oil Spill Trustees. 2012. Cosco Busan Oil Spill Final Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan/Environmental Assessment. Prepared by California Department of Fish and Game, California State Lands Commission, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, United States Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management.

Collins, D.P., Trost, R.E., 2009. 2009 Pacific Flyway Data Book. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of   Migratory Bird Management, Portland, OR, pp. 145.


Cramp, S. & Simmons, K.E.L. (Eds). 1977. The birds of the western Palearctic, Vol. I. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Crewe, T.,  Barry, K., Davidson, P., Lepage, D. 2012. Coastal waterbird population trends in the Strait of Georgia 1999–2011: Results from the first 12 years of the British Columbia Coastal Waterbird Survey. British Columbia Birds,Volume 22, 2012

Deborah, L.L., Boyd, S., Esler, D., Kirk, M., Lewis, T., Lipovsky, S. 2005. Surf Scoters (Melanitta Perspicillata) Aggregate in Association with Ephemerally Abundant Polychaetes. Marine ornithology 33: 61-63.

Delany, S., and D. Scott, eds. 2006. Waterbird Population Estimates - Fourth Edition.

Daigle, S. ant M. Darveau, 1995. Cleaning priority index for aquatic birds vulnerable to oil spills in the St. Lawrence. Technical report series no 231. Quebec Region, Canadian wildlife service. 29p

Decarie, R., F. Morneau, D. Lambert, S. Carriere, and J. P. L. Savard. 1995. Habitat use by brood-rearing waterfowl in subarctic Quebec. Arctic 48:383-390

De La Cruz, S. E. W., J. Y. Takekawa, M. T. Wilson, D. R. Nysewander, J. R. Evenson, D. Esler, W. S. Boyd, and D. H. Ward. 2009. Spring migration routes and chronology of Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata): a synthesis of Pacific coast studies. Canadian Journal of Zoology 87:1069–1086.

De La Cruz, S.E.W., J.M. Eadie, A.K. Miles, J. Yee, K.A. Spragens, E.C. Palm, and J.Y. Takekawa.  2014.  Resource selection and space use by sea ducks during the non-breeding season: Implications for habitat conservation planning in urbanized estuaries.  Biological Conservation 169: 68–78


Evenson, J. (Washington Dept of Fish & Wildlife).  Unpublished study currently in analysis.

Falardeau, G., J.-P. L. Savard, and P. Dupuis. 1998. Migration printaniere des macreuses dans l' estuaire du Saint-Laurent. Can. Wildl. Serv., QC, Tech. Rep. Series.

Gill, R. E., M. R. Petersen and P. D. Jorgensen. 1981. Birds of the northcentral Alaska Peninsula, 1976-1980. Arctic 34:286-306.

Goudie, R.I., S. Brault, B. Conant, A.V. Kondratyev, R. Petersen, K. Vermeer. 1994. The status of sea ducks in the north Pacific rim: toward their conservation and management Transactions of the 59th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference 59:2749

Henny, C. J., L.J. Blus, R.A. Grove, S.P. Thompson. 1991. Accumulation of trace elements and organochlorines by surf scoters wintering in the Pacific Northwest. Northwest. Nat. 72: 43-60.

Henny, C.J., D.D. Rudis, T.J. Roffe, E. Robinson-Wilson. 1995. Contaminants and Sea Ducks in Alaska and the Circumpolar Region. Environ. Health Perspect. 103:41-49.

Hoffman DJ, Ohlendorf HM, Marn CM, Pendlet on GW. 1998. Association of mercury and selenium with altered glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress in diving ducks from the San Francisco Bay region, USA. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 17:167-172.

Howell, S.N.G., and Webb, S., 1995. A Guide to the Birds of Mexico and Northern Central America.  Oxford University Press, USA.

Jessen, R. L. 1981. Special problems with diving ducks. Proceedings of the International Waterfowl Symposium 4:139148.

King, J. G. and G. A. Sanger. 1979. Oil vulnerability index for marine oriented birds of northern North America (J. C. Bartonek and D. N. Nettleship, eds.). U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Wildl. Res. Rep. no. 11.

Korschgen, C. E., George, L. S. & Green, W. L. 1985. Disturbance of diving ducks by boaters on a migrational staging area. Wildlife Society Bulletin 13, 290-296.

Kraege, D. WDFW 2013.  Draft Report to the Washington Fish and Wildlife Commission, Washington Sea Duck Management Strategies, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Waterfowl Section, June 2013 permission by Don Kraege.


Morrier, A., L. Lesage, A. Reed, and J.-P. L. Savard. 1997. Etude sur l'ecologie de la Macreuse a front blanc au lac Malbaie, Reserve des Laurentides--1994-1995. Canadian Wildlife Service, QC, Technical Report Series no. 301

Nysewander, D. R., J. R. Evenson, B. L. Murphie, and T. A. Cyra. 2004. Trends observed for selected marine bird species during 19932002 winter aerial surveys.In T. Droscher and D. A. Fraser (editors), Proceedings of the Georgia Basin/Puget Sound Research Conference. < Publications/03_proceedings/start.htm>.

Ohlendorf, H.M., R.W. Lowe, P.R. Kelly, T.E. Harvey. 1986.  Selenium and heavy metals in San Francisco Bay [California, USA] diving ducks.  J. Wildl. Manage. 50:64-71.

Ohlendorf, H.M., K.C. Marois, R.W. Lowe, T.E. Harvey, P.R. Kelly. 1991.  Trace elements and organochlorines in surf scoters from San Francisco Bay, 1985 [California, USA].  Environ. Monitor. Assess. 18:105-122.

Palmer, R.S. 1976. Handbook of North American Birds, Vol 3 (Waterfowl). Yale University Press. New Haven.  560 pp.

Pitkin, M. and Wood, J. (Editors). 2011. The State of The Birds, San Francisco Bay. PRBO Conservation Science and the San Francisco Bay joint Venture.

Reed, E. B. 1956. Notes on some birds and mammals of the Colville River, Alaska. Canadian Field-Naturalist 70:130-136

Savard, J.-P. L., and P. Lamothe. 1991. Distribution, abundance, and aspects of breeding ecology of Black Scoters,  Melanitta nigra, and Surf Scoters, M. perspicillata, in northern Quebec. Canadian Field-Naturalist 105:488496.

Savard, J.-P.L. 1988. A summary of current knowledge on the distribution and abundance of moulting sea ducks in the coastal waters of British Columbia. Can. Wild. Serv., Pacific and Yukon Region, Tech. Rep. Series no. 45

Savard, J.-P. L., D. Bordage, and A. Reed. 1998. Surf Scoter (Melanitta perspicillata). A. Poole and F. Gill (editors), The birds of North American No. 363. The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

Savard J-PL, Reed A, Lesage L. 2007. Chronology of breeding and molt migration in Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata). Waterbirds 30(2): 223-229.

Schenkeveld, L.E., Ydenberg, R.C., 1985. Synchronous diving by surf scoter flocks. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 63(11): 2516-2519, 10.1139/z85-372 (abstract online)

Scheuhammer, A.M. 1987. The chronic toxicity of aluminum, cadmium, mercury and lead in birds: a review. Environmental Pollution 46:263-295

Schummer, M. L. & Eddleman, W. R. Effects of disturbance on activity and energy budgets of migrating

        waterbirds in south-central Oklahoma. Journal of Wildlife Management 67, 789-795 (2003).

Sea Duck Joint Venture (SDJV) Management Board. 2001. Sea Duck Joint Venture strategic plan: 20012006. SDJV  Continental Team. Unpublished report. USFWS, Anchorage, AK; CWS, Sackville, NB.

Soja, A. J., N. M. Tchebakova, N. H. F. French, M. D. Flannigan, H. H. Shugart, B. J. Stocks, A. I. Sukhinin, E. I. Parfenova, F. S. Chapin III, and P. W. Stackhouse, Jr. 2007. Climate-induced boreal forest change: predictions versus current bservations. Global and Planetary Change 56:274296.

Strawinski, S., 1991: The first record of a surf scoter in Poland. Notatki Ornitologiczne, 321-2: 129-131

Takekawa, J. Y., S. W. De La Cruz, M. T. Wilson, E. C. Palm, J. Yee, D. R. Nysewander, J. R. Evenson, J. M. Eadie, D. Esler, W. S. Boyd, and D. H. Ward. 2011. Breeding distribution and ecology of Pacific coast Surf Scoters. Pp. 41– 64 in J. V. Wells (editor). Boreal birds of North America: a hemispheric view of their conservation links and significance. Studies in Avian Biology (no. 41), University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

Uher-Koch, B.,2013. Latitudinal and Seasonal Variation in Non-breeding Survival of Surf and White-winged Scoters. M.S. Thesis, Simon Fraser University, Burnbury, British Columbia, Canada

USFWS. 1993. Status of sea ducks in eastern North America. USDI Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Migratory Bird Management, Laurel, MD.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), 2002. Waterfowl population status 2002. U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.

Vermeer, K. 1981. Food and populations of surf scoters in British Coloumbia.  Wildfowl 32: 107-116.

Vermeer, K, I Robertson, RW Campbell, G Kaiser and M Lemon, 1983. Distribution and densities of marine birds on the Canadian west coast. Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa.


Webster, M. S., P. P. Marra, S. M. Haig, S. Bencsch, and R. T. Holmes, 2002. Links between worlds: unraveling migratory connectivity. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 17:7683.


Wetlands International, 2012. Waterbird Population Estimates, Fifth Edition. Summary Report.

Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

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